Cuba under U.S. Influence
On the eve of a Cuba victory, the U.S.
intervened in the conflict. Following its intervention in 1898, the U.S.
denied Cuban a seat at the peace negotiations and had Cuban sovereignty
transferred to itself. As mentioned earlier, Cuba was all ready well
within the American sphere of influence; however, denied the legal right
to annex the island by the Teller Amendment, with the Platt Amendment
force upon the nation in 1903, U.S. domination went from informal
economic domination to institutional imperialism.
To Read the Platt Amendment Go Here:
To Read the Teller Amendment Go Here:
The significance to the U.S. occupation,
according to Perez, was that it “deprived Cubans of the opportunity to
reorder the economy and reorganize property relations to accommodate
their own interests.”
By 1905, “An estimated 60 percent of all rural property in
Cuba was owned by individuals and corporations from the
Under American supervision,
Cuba under went a bourgeoisie revolution following the post war boom of
the 1920s. As Perez contends, “By the early 1920s, many within the new
entrepreneurial bourgeoisie had reached the limit of their
patience...The new entrepreneurs demanded a greater voice in public
Additionally, during this period labor started to organize, particular
in the cigar and railroad industries. It was in this political climate
that the reform liberal, Gerardo Machado ascended to the presidency in
1924. Machado was a proponent of industrialization and economic
diversification. By 1930, Cuba’s share of the world sugar market had
risen to 46 percent. However, the vast majority of its citizens did not
partake in this prosperity.
However, the global economic
crisis of the 1930s hit Cuba hard. The corruption of Machado was succeeded by the oppression of
Carlos Manuel de Cespedes. In 1935, a sergeant named Fulgencio Batista
lead an army group in rebellion against their officers and “ended up
with full state power in their hands.”
Batista assumed control of the military and placed Ramon Grau San Martin
in charge of the civilian government. In less then a month Grau would
be dismiss by the right wing element headed by Batista, however, in that
amount of time in proclaimed a series of reforms that included “the
establishment of the eight-hour work day, a minimum wage, women’s
suffrage, compulsory organization of professionals, autonomy for the
University of Havana, repatriation of foreign workers, and the
requirement that 50 percent of the employees in all industry and
commerce be Cuban. He had also announced the beginning of a program of
Yet it lasted only a month.
Following the overthrow of Gura, until the Castro lead revolution,
Batista and his political puppet rule the island. In an effort to
bolster the regime prestige, the U.S. abolished the Platt amendment.
Again a conservative dictator, friendly to U.S. imperialistic interest
placed his iron grip upon the island.